Mengenai Saya

Foto saya
hanya diriku sendiri yang tahu,dan orang lain terserah mu nilai gue kayak gimana orangnya.

Jumat, 18 Juni 2010

Berkenalan dengan AJAX

Istilah AJAX Asynchronous JavaScript And XML) dalam pengembangan web menjadi populer pada beberapa tahun belakangan ini. AJAX ini sendiri bukan merupakan bahasa pemrograman baru, AJAX hanya merupakan sebuah teknik pemanfaatan object XMLHttpRequest dengan javascript untuk berkomunikasi dengan server secara Asynchronous,dengan pemanfaatan object XMLHttpRequest ini kita dapat membuat proses berjalan secara background atau bekerja dibelakang layar sementara user dapat tetap berinteraksi dengan halaman web yang ada. Pemanfaatan tehnik Asynchronous ini jugalah yang telah mendorong pengembangan web menjadi lebih kaya atau banyak yang menulisnya dengan istilah pengembangan Rich Internet Application (RIA) atau WEB 2.0.

AJAX pertama kali di perkenalkan oleh Jesse James Garrett pada tulisannya yang berjudul AJAX: A New Approach To Web Applications. Jesse James memberi istilah AJAX untuk singkatan dari Asynchronous JavaScript And XML, namun pada perkembangannya data yang dikomunikasikan secara Asynchronous tidaklah harus berupa XML data, kita mengunakan format data lain untuk dikomunikasikan secara Asynchronous dengan server seperti PLAIN TEXT FILE, HTML DATA atau juga berupa SWF data (Flash file).

Sejarah singkat AJAX

Tehnik komunikasi Asynchronous dengan server sendiri pertama kali dikembangkan oleh microsoft pada tahun 1997, kemudian pertama kali XMLHttpRequest Object diperkenalkan pada IE5 (circa 1998) dan kemudian dipergunakan secara luas pada Outlook web access. Jesse James Garrett's kemudian memberikan istilah AJAX untuk tehnik Asynchronous ini pada salah satu tulisannya di tahun 2005. Dan hingga saat ini telah banyak yang mengimplementasikan tehnik ini dalam pengembangan web, sebagai contoh pengunaan AJAX dalam web application bisa dilihat pada beberapa link berikut:
z Google Map
z Flickr.com
z gmail.com
z google sugest
z yahoo.com
dan masih banyak lagi contoh lainnya yang dapat ditemukan pada aplikasi web saat ini.

BERKENALAN DENGAN AJAX

Sebelum membahas panjang lebar tentang scripting dan coding,kita berkenalan dahulu dengan apa yang disebut dengan AJAX, siapa sebenarnya AJAX tersebut dan bagaimana
kelakuannya. AJAX bukan merupakan bahasa pemrograman baru, namun hanya sebuah istilah untuk tehnik pemanfaatan Javascript dalam mengontrol class object XMLHttpRequest untuk berkomunikasi dengan server kemudian merefresh/mengupdate content yang ada dalam halaman web tanpa melakuan Reload keseluruhan halaman web seperti pada metode Tradisional sebelumnya, AJAX sendiri merupakan singkatan dari "Asynchronous JavaScript And XML".

Asynchronous & Synchronous

Bagaimana AJAX bekerja? dan mengapa pemanfaatan AJAX ini membawa istilah baru pada pengembangan web sehingga muncul istilah WEB 2.0? dan ada beberapa istilah lain yang juga dapat ditemukan dengan menanfatan AJAX seperti Rich internet aplication (RIA).

Dari singkatan AJAX sebelumnya ditemukan istilah “Asynchronous”, sekarang kita bahas sedikit dahulu tentang istilah tersebut dalam pengembangan web. Jika ada tehnik Asynchronous maka juga terdapat tehnik Synchronous, apa sih perbedaan kedua tehnik tersebut dalam pengembangan web? Berikut sedikit gambaranya. Agar lebih mudah dipahami saya bahas dengan sedikit gambar berikut untuk proses
SYNCHRONOUS dalam pengembangan web yang telah lama digunakan sebelumnya.

Saat user berinteraksi dengan sebuah halaman web terdapat banyak pilihan link yang dapat ditemukan, dan saat link tersebut di click maka halaman web tersebut akan melakukan komunikasi dengan server melalui internet untuk meminta proses ke server (send Request) Selama server melakukan proses, user akan menunggu hasil proses tersebut.

Setelah server selesai melakukan proses yang diminta maka server akan mengembalikan hasil proses yang akan ditampilkan pada client webbrowser. Dalam proses synchronous ini user melakukan permintaan proses (request process) ke server dan menunggu hingga server mengembalikan hasil proses yang di minta, umumnya hasil proses dari server merupakan sebuah halaman web baru yang ditampilkan pada web browser user.

Pemanfaatan tehnik Asynchronous dengan Javascript ini dalam pengembangan web ini lebih dikenal dengan istilah WEB 2.0 (baca: web two point O). Dengan tehnik proses Asynchronous kita dapat membuat sebuah aplikasi web lebih kaya atau banyak yang menulis dengan istilah Rich internet aplication (RIA), kita dapat membiarkan user untuk tetap berinteraksi dengan halaman web yang ada selama proses request dilakukan dan selama server belum
mengembalikan hasil proses yang diminta. Dan saat hasil proses telah selesai kita hanya perlu mengupdate data halaman web yang telah ada, berikut gambaran dari proses kerja Asynchronous tersebut.

User berinteraksi dengan link‐link yang ada untuk meminta proses ke server, proses yang diminta akan dikirimkan secara background ke server, selama server belum mengembalikan data hasil proses, user dapat tetap bekerja dengan halaman web yang ada sebelumnya. Setelah server selesai melakukan proses, hasil proses tersebut akan dikirmkan kembali kepada web browser, saat data yang dikirimkan server telah diterima oleh webbrowser user maka data tersebut ditampilkan pada halaman web yang telah ada sebelumnya.

Disini terlihat semua proses komunikasi dengan server dilakukan secara background atau mungkin bisa dikatakan semua proses dilakukan Behind the Scene :)


XMLHttpRequest Object
Untuk dapat mengembangkan aplikasi web dengan tehnik AJAX ini kita perlu mengkombinasikan beberapa hal berikut:

z Javascript untuk membuat object XMLHttpRequest yang kita gunakan untuk berkomunikasi dengan server secara behind the scene.

z DOM (Document Object Model), hasil proses yang diterima akan kita tampilkan dengan memanipulasi object DOM yang telah kita persiapkan sebelumnya untuk menampilkan data hasil proses yang diberikan server.
z XML (eXtensible Markup Language) format data yang dikembalikan oleh server, data
XML ini siap dibaca dan ditampilkan untuk mengupdate content pada halaman web.
secara sederhana kita akan memanfaatkan beberapa kombinasi diatas untuk membuat aplikasi web dengan tehnik AJAX ini, namun kita masih dapat mengembangkannya lebih lanjut setelah mengetahui proses kerja dari tehnik AJAX ini.

Kelebihan utama AJAX sendiri terletak pada pemanfaatan class object XMLHttpRequest untuk berkomunikasi dengan Web Server secara background dalam melakukan request. Saat ini terdapat banyak aplikasi web browser, dan yang agak sedikit menyebalkan adalah karena masing‐masing browser mempunyai standart dan cara berbeda untuk membuat object XMLHttpRequest ini.

Untuk dapat berjalan dengan baik pada semua browser kita perlu menyiapkan beberapa kondisi untuk mendeteksi web browser yang digunakan oleh user, dan kemudian membuat object XMLHttpRequest tersebut sesuai web browser yang digunakan.



Bahan bacaan

a) AJAX: A New Approch To Web Applications http://www.adaptivepath.com/publications/essays/archives/000385.php
b) Mathew Ernisse: Build your own AJAX web application http://www.sitepoint.com/launch/53fc13


Referensi
a) www.w3c.org
b) Marini, Joe (2005): Developing AJAX aplication
c) Morgan, Kaufman (2007): Unleashing WEB 2.0, from concept to creativity
d) Babin, Leen (2007): Beginning Ajax with PHP: From Novice to Professional




OPEN SOURCE AJAX FRAMEWORK
a) Dojo : www.dojotoolkit.com
b) Yahoo User Interface : http://developer.yahoo.com/yui/
c) Adobe spry : http://labs.adobe.com/technologies/spry/
d) Mochikit : http://www.mochikit.com
e) Qooxdoo.org : http://qooxdoo.org/ Read More..

Rabu, 03 Maret 2010

Practice Test in class , at 18th February 2010

  1. The Armory Show, held in New York in 1913, was a important exhibition of modern European art.
  2. Ripe fruit is often stored in a place who contains much carbon dioxide so that the fruit will not decay too rapidly.
  3. In 1852 Massachusetts passed a law requiring all children from four to eighteen years of old to attend school.
  4. The main purpose of classifying animals is to show the most probable evolutionary relationship of the different species to each another.
  5. Matthew C Perry, a United States naval commander, gained fame not in war and through diplomacy.
  6. One of the most impressive collections of nineteenth-century European paintings in the United States can be found to the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
  7. Three of every four migrating water birds in North America visits the Gulf of Mexico's winter wetlands.
  8. Charleston, West Virginia, was named for Charles Clendenin, who son George acquired land at the junction of the Elk and Kanawha rivers in 1787.
  9. Financier Andrew Mellon donated most of his magnificent art collection to the National Galerry of Art, where it is now locating.
  10. Soil temperatures in Death Valley, California, near the Nevada border, have been known to reach 90 of degrees Celcius.
  11. When the Sun, Moon, and Earth are alignment and the Moon crosses the Earth's orbital plane, a solar eclipse occurs.
  12. Mary Cassatt's paintings of mothers and children are known for its fine linear rhythm, simple modelings, and harmonies of clear color.
  13. Plants synthesize carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide with the aid of energy is derived from sunlight.
  14. The best American popular music balances a powerful of emotions of youth with tenderness, grace, and wit.
  15. In the nineteenth century, women used quilts to inscribe their responses to social, economics, and politics issues.
  16. Fossils in 500-million-year-old rocks demonstrate that life forms in the cambrian period were mostly marine animals capability of secreting calcium to from shells.
  17. Rainbows in the shape of complete circles are sometimes seen from airplanes because they are not cutting off by the horizon.
  18. Hot at the equator causes the air to expand, rise, and flow toward the poles.
  19. Although research has been on going since 1930, the existence of ESP-perception and communication without the use of sight, hear, taste, touch, or smell - is still disputed.
  20. As many as 50 percent of the income from motion pictures produced in the United States comes from marketing the films abroad.
  21. Sleep is controlled by the brain and associated by characteristic breathing rhythms.
  22. The walls around the city of Quebec, which was originally a fort millitary, still stand, making Quebec the only walled city in North America.
  23. The manufacture of authomobile was extremely expensive until assembly-line techniques made them cheaper to produce.
  24. The ballad is characterized by informal diction, by a narrative largely dependent on action and dialogue, by thematic intense, and by stress on repetition.
  25. Eleanor Roosevelt set the standard against which the wives of all United States Presidents since have evaluated.

Caution :

the word that bold is the answer of the sentence !!!!
Read More..

Minggu, 28 Februari 2010

KOMPUTASI MODERN

Komputasi

Komputasi sebetulnya bisa diartikan sebagai cara untuk menemukan pemecahan masalah dari data input dengan menggunakan suatu algoritma. Hal ini ialah apa yang disebut dengan teori komputasi, suatu sub-bidang dari ilmu komputer dan matematika. Selama ribuan tahun, perhitungan dan komputasi umumnya dilakukan dengan menggunakan pena dan kertas, atau kapur dan batu tulis, atau dikerjakan secara mental, kadang-kadang dengan bantuan suatu tabel. Namun sekarang, kebanyakan komputasi telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan komputer.

Secara umum iIlmu komputasi adalah bidang ilmu yang mempunyai perhatian pada penyusunan model matematika dan teknik penyelesaian numerik serta penggunaan komputer untuk menganalisis dan memecahkan masalah-masalah ilmu (sains). Dalam penggunaan praktis, biasanya berupa penerapan simulasi komputer atau berbagai bentuk komputasi lainnya untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah dalam berbagai bidang keilmuan, tetapi dalam perkembangannya digunakan juga untuk menemukan prinsip-prinsip baru yang mendasar dalam ilmu.

Bidang ini berbeda dengan ilmu komputer (computer science), yang mengkaji komputasi, komputer dan pemrosesan informasi. Bidang ini juga berbeda dengan teori dan percobaan sebagai bentuk tradisional dari ilmu dan kerja keilmuan. Dalam ilmu alam, pendekatan ilmu komputasi dapat memberikan berbagai pemahaman baru, melalui penerapan model-model matematika dalam program komputer berdasarkan landasan teori yang telah berkembang, untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah nyata dalam ilmu tersebut.


Kelahiran

Ilmu atau sains berdasarkan obyek kajiannya dibedakan antara Fisika, Kimia, Biologi dan Geologi. Ilmu dapat pula digolongkan berdasarkan metodologi dominan yang digunakannya, yaitu ilmu pengamatan/percobaan (observational/experimental science), ilmu teori (theoretical science) dan ilmu komputasi (computational science). Yang terakhir ini bisa dianggap bentuk yang paling baru yang muncul bersamaan dengan perkembangan kekuatan pemrosesan dalam komputer dan perkembangan teknik-teknik metode numerik dan metode komputasi lainnya.

Dalam ilmu (sains) tradisional seperti Fisika, Kimia dan Biologi, penggolongan ilmu berdasarkan metodologi dominannya juga mewujud, yang ditunjukkan dengan munculnya bidang-bidang khusus berdasarkan penggolongan tsb. lengkap dengan jurnal-jurnal yang relevan untuk melaporkan hasil-hasil penelitiannya. Sebagai contoh dalam kimia, melengkapi kimia percobaan (experimental chemistry) dan kimia teori (theoretical chemistry), berkembang pula kimia komputasi (computational chemistry), seperti juga di bidang Biologi dikenal Biologi Teori (theoretical biology) serta Biologi Komputasi (computational biology), lengkap dengan jurnalnya seperti Journal of Computational Chemistry dan Journal of Computational Biology. Cara penggolongan yang digunakan berbeda dengan cara penggolongan lain berdasarkan obyek kajian, seperti penggolongan kimia atas Kimia Organik, Kimia Anorganik, dan Biokimia.

Walaupun dengan titik pandang yang berbeda, ilmu komputasi sebagai bentuk ketiga dari ilmu (sains) telah banyak disampaikan oleh berbagai pihak, antara lain Stephen Wolfram dengan bukunya yang terkenal: A New Kind of Science, dan Jürgen Schmidhuber.



Komputasi sains

Komputasi sains merupakan salah satu cabang ilmu komputasi. Secara umum komputasi sains mengkaji aspek-aspek komputasi untuk aplikasi / memecahkan masalah di bidang sains lain, seperti fisika, kimia, biologi dan lain-lain.

Di Indonesia sudah banyak pertemuan atau kegiatan ilmiah terkait dengan komputasi, tetapi umumnya lebih terkait dengan aspek teknologi informasi. Sedangkan kajian di komputasi sains masih sangat kurang. Hal ini tidak mengherankan karena komputasi sains lebih condong sebagai kajian teori murni, sehingga komunitasnya masih sangat terbatas seperti halnya fisika teori. Hanya ada satu kegiatan ilmiah yang terkait langsung dan fokus pada kajian komputasi sains, yaitu Workshop on Computational Science yang diadakan rutin setiap tahun oleh konsorsium yang tergabung dalam Masyarakat Komputasi IndonesiaTeknologi komputasi

Teknologi komputasi (bahasa Inggris: computing) adalah aktivitas penggunaan dan pengembangan teknologi komputer, perangkat keras, dan perangkat lunak komputer. Ia merupakan bagian spesifik komputer dari teknologi informasi. Ilmu komputer adalah kajian dan ilmu dasar teori informasi dan komputasi serta implementasi dan aplikasinya dalam sistem komputer.

Bidang utama teknologi

Ilmu terapan Kecerdasan buatan • Teknologi keramik • Teknologi komputasi • Elektronika • Elektronika dan instrumentasi • Teknologi energi • Penyimpanan energi • Rekayasa fisika • Teknologi lingkungan • Tekni material • Mikroteknologi • Nanoteknologi • Teknologi nuklir • Rekayasa optik • Komputer quantum

Olahraga
dan Rekreasi Peralatan berkemah • Tempat bermain • Peralatan olahraga

Informasi
dan Komunikasi Teknologi informasi • Teknologi komunikasi • Grafis • Teknologi musik • Pengenalan suara • Teknologi visual

Industri Konstruksi • Teknik finansial • Manufaktur • Mesin • Pertambangan

Militer Bom • Senapan • Amunisi • Teknologi militer • Teknik kelautan • Pesawat tempur • Kapal perang • Peluru kendali • Tank

Rumah tangga Peralatan rumah tangga • Teknologi rumah tangga • Teknologi pendidikan • Teknologi pangan

Teknik Teknik material • Teknik finansial • Teknik kelautan • Teknik biomedis • Teknik keselamatan • Teknik kesehatan • Teknik penerbangan • Teknik perkapalan • Teknik pertanian • Teknik arsitektur • Rekayasa biologi • Teknik bioproses • Teknik biomedis • Teknik kimia • Teknik sipil • Teknik komputer • Teknik konstruksi • Teknik listrik • Teknik elektro • Teknik lingkungan • Teknik industri • Teknik mesin • Teknik mekatronika • Teknik metalurgi • Teknik pertambangan • Teknik nuklir • Teknik otomotif • Teknik perminyakan • Teknik perangkat lunak • Teknik struktur • Rekayasa jaringan

Kesehatan
dan Keselamatan Teknik biomedis • Bioinformatika • Bioteknologi • Informatika kimiawi • Teknologi perlindungan kebakaran • Farmakologi • Teknik keselamatan • Teknik kesehatan

Transportasi Angkasa luar • Teknik penerbangan • Teknik perkapalan • Kendaraan bermotor • Teknologi luar angkasa


John Von Neumann, Sang Penggagas Komputasi Modern

John von Neumann (1903-1957) adalah ilmuan yang meletakkan dasar-dasar komputer modern. Dalam hidupnya yang singkat, Von Neumann telah menjadi ilmuwan besar abad 21. Von Neumann meningkatkan karya-karyanya dalam bidang matematika, teori kuantum, game theory, fisika nuklir, dan ilmu komputer. Beliau juga merupakan salah seorang ilmuwan yang sangat berpengaruh dalam pembuatan bom atom di Los Alamos pada Perang Dunia II lalu.

Von Neumann dilahirkan di Budapest, Hungaria pada 28 Desember 1903 dengan nama Neumann Janos. Dia adalah anak pertama dari pasangan Neumann Miksa dan Kann Margit. Di sana, nama keluarga diletakkan di depan nama asli. Sehingga dalam bahasa Inggris, nama orang tuanya menjadi Max Neumann. Pada saat Max Neumann memperoleh gelar, maka namanya berubah menjadi Von Neumann. Setelah bergelar doktor dalam ilmu hukum, dia menjadi pengacara untuk sebuah bank. Pada tahun 1903, Budapest terkenal sebagai tempat lahirnya para manusia genius dari bidang sains, penulis, seniman dan musisi.

Von Neumann juga belajar di Berlin dan Zurich dan mendapatkan diploma pada bidang teknik kimia pada tahun 1926. Pada tahun yang sama dia mendapatkan gelar doktor pada bidang matematika dari Universitas Budapest. Keahlian Von Neumann terletak pada bidang teori game yang melahirkan konsep seluler automata, teknologi bom atom, dan komputasi modern yang kemudian melahirkan komputer. Kegeniusannya dalam matematika telah terlihat semenjak kecil dengan mampu melakukan pembagian bilangan delapan digit (angka) di dalam kepalanya.

Setelah mengajar di Berlin dan Hamburg, Von Neumann pindah ke Amerika pada tahun 1930 dan bekerja di Universitas Princeton serta menjadi salah satu pendiri Institute for Advanced Studies.

Dipicu ketertarikannya pada hidrodinamika dan kesulitan penyelesaian persamaan diferensial parsial nonlinier yang digunakan, Von Neumann kemudian beralih dalam bidang komputasi. Sebagai konsultan pada pengembangan ENIAC, dia merancang konsep arsitektur komputer yang masih dipakai sampai sekarang. Arsitektur Von Nuemann adalah komputer dengan program yang tersimpan (program dan data disimpan pada memori) dengan pengendali pusat, I/O, dan memori.


Komputasi Modern

Komputasi bisa diartikan sebagai cara untuk menyelesaikan sebuah masalah dari inputan data dengan menggunakan algoritma.

teknologi komputasi adalah aktivitas penggunaan dan pengembangan teknologi komputer, perangkat keras, dan perangkat lunak komputer. Ia merupakan bagian spesifik komputer dari teknologi informasi.

Pencetus dari dasar – dasar komputasi modern pertama kali adalah John Von Neuman. Ia adalah ilmuwan yang meletakkan dasar – dasar komputasi modern. Semasa hidupnya Von Neumann telah menjadi ilmuwan besar abad 21 dengan meningkatkan karya – karyanya tidak hanya dalam bidang matematika, teori kuantum dan game theory, namun juga fisika nuklir dan ilmu komputer. Beliau juga salah seorang ilmuwan yang berpengaruh dalam pembuatan bom atom di Los Alamos pada perang Dunia II.

Sejarah Von Neumann

Von Neumann dilahirkan di Budapest, Hungaria pada 28 Desember 1903 dengan nama Neumann Janos. Dia adalah anak pertama dari pasangan Neumann Miksa dan Kann Margit. Di sana, nama keluarga diletakkan di depan nama asli. Sehingga dalam bahasa Inggris, nama orang tuanya menjadi Max Neumann. Pada saat Max Neumann memperoleh gelar, maka namanya berubah menjadi Von Neumann. Setelah bergelar doktor dalam ilmu hukum, dia menjadi pengacara untuk sebuah bank. Pada tahun 1903, Budapest terkenal sebagai tempat lahirnya para manusia genius dari bidang sains, penulis, seniman dan musisi.
Von Neumann juga belajar di Berlin dan Zurich dan mendapatkan diploma pada bidang teknik kimia pada tahun 1926. Pada tahun yang sama dia mendapatkan gelar doktor pada bidang matematika dari Universitas Budapest. Keahlian Von Neumann terletak pada bidang teori game yang melahirkan konsep seluler automata, teknologi bom atom, dan komputasi modern yang kemudian melahirkan komputer. Kegeniusannya dalam matematika telah terlihat semenjak kecil dengan mampu melakukan pembagian bilangan delapan digit (angka) di dalam kepalanya.

Setelah mengajar di Berlin dan Hamburg, Von Neumann pindah ke Amerika pada tahun 1930 dan bekerja di Universitas Princeton serta menjadi salah satu pendiri Institute for Advanced Studies.

Dipicu ketertarikannya pada hidrodinamika dan kesulitan penyelesaian persamaan diferensial parsial nonlinier yang digunakan, Von Neumann kemudian beralih dalam bidang komputasi. Sebagai konsultan pada pengembangan ENIAC, dia merancang konsep arsitektur komputer yang masih dipakai sampai sekarang. Arsitektur Von Nuemann adalah komputer dengan program yang tersimpan (program dan data disimpan pada memori) dengan pengendali pusat, I/O, dan memori.

berdasarkan beberapa definisi di atas, maka komputasi modern dapat diartikan sebagai suatu pemecahan masalah berdasarkan suatu inputan dengan menggunakan algoritma dimana penerapannya menggunakan berbagai teknologi yang telah berkembang seperti komputer.

Dengan begitu waktu yang diperlukan untuk menemukan solusi atas masalah lebih cepat dan keakuratan dari selousi tersebut lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan komputasi terdahulu yang umumnya menggunakan pena dan kertas maupun kapur dan batu tulis atau dikerjakan dengan menggunakan bantuan tabel.


Sejarah Komputasi Modern

Konsep dasar arsitektur komputer modern adalah konsep sebuah sistem yang menerima intruksi-intruksi dan menyimpannya dalam sebuah memory. Konsep ini pertama kali digagasi oleh John Von Neumann. Beliau di lahirkan di Budapest, ibukota Hungaria pada 28 Desember 1903 dengan nama Neumann Janos. Karya – karya yang dihasilkan adalah karya dalam bidang matematika, teori kuantum, game theory, fisika nuklir, dan ilmu komputer. Beliau juga merupakan salah seorang ilmuwan yang sangat berpengaruh dalam pembuatan bom atom di Los Alamos pada Perang Dunia II lalu. Kepiawaian John Von Neumann teletak pada bidang teori game yang melahirkan konsep automata, teknologi bom atom dan komputasi modern yang kemudian melahirkan komputer.

Pengertian : Komputasi sebetulnya bisa diartikan sebagai cara untuk menemukan pemecahan masalah dari data input dengan menggunakan suatu algoritma. Komputasi merupakan suatu sub-bidang dari ilmu komputer dan matematika. Selama ribuan tahun, perhitungan dan komputasi umumnya dilakukan dengan menggunakan pena dan kertas, atau kapur dan batu tulis, atau dikerjakan secara mental, kadang-kadang dengan bantuan suatu tabel. Namun sekarang, kebanyakan komputasi telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan komputer. Komputasi yang menggunakan komputer inilah yang disebut dengan Komputasi Modern. Komputasi modern menghitung dan mencari solusi dari masalah yang ada, yang menjadi perhitungan dari komputasi modern adalah : 1. Akurasi (bit, Floating poin) 2. Kecepatan (Dalam satuan Hz) 3. Problem volume besar (Down sizing atau paralel) 4. Modeling (NN dan GA) 5. Kompleksitas (Menggunakan teori Big O). Read More..

Rabu, 06 Januari 2010

Pronouns

Pronoun

A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.

Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.

Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.

Subjective Personal Pronouns

A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they."

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence:

I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack.
You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.
When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner.
After many years, they returned to their homeland.
We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.
It is on the counter.
Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?

Objective Personal Pronouns

An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them."

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun:

Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.

The objective personal pronoun "her" is the direct object of the verb "forced" and the objective personal pronoun "him" is the object of the preposition "with."

After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can.

The pronoun "it" is the direct object of the verb "threw."

The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said, "Our leader will address you in five minutes."

In this sentence, the pronoun "you" is the direct object of the verb "address."

Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market.

Here the objective personal pronoun "us" is the direct object of the compound verb "will meet."

Give the list to me.

Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of the preposition "to."

I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you.

Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun "you" is the object of the preposition "to."

Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races.

Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to see."

Possessive Personal Pronouns

A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my," "her," and "their."

In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun:

The smallest gift is mine.

Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject complement.

This is yours.

Here too the possessive pronoun "yours" functions as a subject complement.

His is on the kitchen counter.

In this example, the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the subject of the sentence.

Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.

In this sentence, the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the subject of the sentence.

Ours is the green one on the corner.

Here too the possessive pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence.

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.

The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:

This must not continue.

Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue."

This is puny; that is the tree I want.

In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker.

Three customers wanted these.

Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted."

Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever"). Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.

"Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.

The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun:

Which wants to see the dentist first?

"Which" is the subject of the sentence.

Who wrote the novel Rockbound?

Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence.

Whom do you think we should invite?

In this sentence, "whom" is the object of the verb "invite."

To whom do you wish to speak?

Here the interrogative pronoun "whom " is the object of the preposition "to."

Who will meet the delegates at the train station?

In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound verb "will meet."

To whom did you give the paper?

In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the preposition "to."

What did she say?

Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say."

Relative Pronouns

You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.

You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.

In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.

You may invite whomever you like to the party.

The relative pronoun "whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may invite."

The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.

In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote." This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate."

In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.

In this sentence "whom" is the direct object of the verb "believes" and introduces the subordinate clause "whom she believes to be the most efficient". This subordinate clause modifies the noun "workers."

Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.

Here "whoever" functions as the subject of the verb "broke."

The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.

In this example "which" acts as the subject of the compound verb "was left" and introduces the subordinate clause "which was left in the corridor." The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun "crate."

I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.

Here "whichever" modifies the noun "manuscript" and introduces the subordinate clause "whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb "will read."

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.

The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns:

Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.

Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited."

The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.

In this example, "everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was thrown."

We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale.

In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of theverb "donated."

Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none.

Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct object of "found."

Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.

In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws."

Give a registration package to each.

Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to."

Reflexive Pronouns

You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.

The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun:

Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.
After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.
Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.
Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.

Intensive Pronouns

An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:

I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.
Read More..

Senin, 04 Januari 2010

Verb + to Infinitive

Infinitive

In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. In the usual (traditional) description of English, the infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to do, be and to be, and so on are infinitives. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition of infinitive that applies to all languages. Many Native American languages and some languages in Africa and Aboriginal Australia simply do not have infinitives or verbal nouns. In their place they use finite verb forms used in ordinary clauses or special constructions.

In languages that have infinitives, they generally have most of the following properties:

• In most uses, infinitives are non-finite verbs.
• They function as other lexical categories — usually nouns — within the clauses that contain them, for example by serving as the subject of another verb.
• They do not represent any of the verb's arguments (as employer and employee do).
• They are not inflected to agree with any subject
• They cannot serve as the only verb of a declarative sentence.
• They do not have tense, aspect, moods, and/or voice, or they are limited in the range of tenses, aspects, moods, and/or voices that they can use. (In languages where infinitives do not have moods at all, they are usually treated as being their own non-finite mood.)
• They are used with auxiliary verbs.

However, it bears repeating that none of the above is a defining quality of the infinitive; infinitives do not have all these properties in every language, as it is shown below, and other verb forms may have one or more of them. For example, English gerunds and participles have most of these properties as well.

Infinitives in English

English has three non-finite verbal forms, but by long-standing convention, the term "infinitive" is applied to only one of these. (The other two are the past- and present-participle forms, where the present-participle form is also the gerund form.) In English, a verb's infinitive is its unmarked form, such as be, do, have, or sit, often introduced by the particle to. When this particle is absent, the infinitive is said to be a bare infinitive; when it is present, it is generally considered to be a part of the infinitive, then known as the full infinitive (or to-infinitive), and there is a controversy about whether it should be separated from the main word of the infinitive. (See Split infinitive.) Nonetheless, modern theories typically do not consider the to-infinitive to be a distinct constituent, instead taking the particle to to operate on an entire verb phrase; so, to buy a car is parsed as to [buy [a car]], not as [to buy] [a car].

The bare infinitive and the full infinitive are mostly in complementary distribution. They are not generally interchangeable, but the distinction does not generally affect the meaning of a sentence; rather, certain contexts call almost exclusively for the bare infinitive, and all other contexts call for the full infinitive.

Huddleston and Pullum's recent Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (CGEL) does not use the notion of the infinitive, arguing that English uses the same form of the verb, the plain form, in infinitival clauses that it uses in imperative and present-subjunctive clauses.

Uses of the bare infinitive

The bare infinitive is not used in as many contexts as the full infinitive, but some of these are quite common :

• The bare infinitive is used as the main verb after the dummy auxiliary verb do, or most modal auxiliary verbs (such as will, can, or should). So, "I will/do/can/etc. see it."

• Several common verbs of perception, including see, watch, hear, feel, and sense take a direct object and a bare infinitive, where the bare infinitive indicates an action taken by the main verb's direct object. So, "I saw/watched/heard/etc. it happen." (A similar meaning can be effected by using the present participle instead: "I saw/watched/heard/etc. it happening." The difference is that the former implies that the entirety of the event was perceived, while the latter implies that part of the progress of the event was perceived.)

• Similarly with several common verbs of permission or causation, including make, bid, let, and have. So, "I made/bade/let/had him do it." (However, make takes a to-infinitive in the passive voice: "I was made to do it.")

• With the word why. So, "Why reveal it?"

• The bare infinitive is the dictionary form of a verb, and is generally the form of a verb that receives a definition; however, the definition itself generally uses a to-infinitive. So, "The word 'amble' means 'to walk slowly.'"

• The bare infinitive form is also the present subjunctive form and the imperative form, although most grammarians do not consider uses of the present subjunctive or imperative to be uses of the bare infinitive.

Uses of the full infinitive

The full infinitive (or to-infinitive) is used in a great many different contexts :

• Outside of dictionary headwords, it is the most commonly used citation form of the English verb: "How do we conjugate the verb to go?"
• It can be used like a noun phrase, expressing its action or state in an abstract, general way. So, "To err is human"; "To know me is to love me". (However, a gerund is often preferred for this — "Being is doing" would be more natural than the abstract and philosophical sounding "To be is to do.")
• It can be used like an adjective or adverb, expressing purpose or intent. So, "The letter says I'm to wait outside", or "He is the man to talk to", or "[In order] to meditate, one must free one's mind."
• In either of the above uses, it can often be given a subject using the preposition for: "For him to fail now would be a great disappointment"; "[In order] for you to get there on time, you'll need to leave now." (The former sentence could also be written, "His failing now would be a great disappointment.")
• It can be used after many intransitive verbs; in this case, it generally has the subject of the main verb as its implicit subject. So, "I agreed to leave", or "He failed to make his case." (This may be considered a special case of the noun-like use above.) With some verbs the infinitive may carry a significantly different meaning from a gerund: compare I stopped to talk to her with I stopped talking to her, or I forgot to buy the bread with I forgot buying the bread.
• It can be used after the direct objects of many transitive verbs; in this case, it generally has the direct object of the main verb as its implicit subject. So, "I convinced him to leave with me", or "He asked her to make his case on his behalf." However, in some cases, the subject of the main clause is also subject of the infinitival clause, as in "John promises Mary to cook", where the cook is John (the subject of the main sentence), and not Mary (the object).
• As a special case of the above, it can often be used after an intransitive verb, together with a subject using the preposition for: "I arranged for him to accompany me", or "I waited for summer to arrive."

When the verb is implied, some dialects will reduce the to-infinitive to simply to: "Do I have to?"

The infinitive with auxiliary verbs

The auxiliary verb do does not have an infinitive — even though do is also a main verb and in that sense is often used in the infinitive. One does not say *I asked to do not have to, but rather, either I asked not to have to or I asked to not have to (but see split infinitive). Similarly, one cannot emphasize an infinitive using do; one cannot say, "I hear him do say it all the time."

Nonetheless, the auxiliary verbs have (used to form the perfect aspect) and be (used to form the passive voice and continuous aspect) both commonly appear in the infinitive: "It's thought to have been a ceremonial site", or "I want to be doing it already."

Defective verbs

The modal auxiliary verbs, can, may, shall, will and must are defective in that they do not have infinitives; so, one cannot say, *I want him to can do it, but rather must say, I want him to be able to do it. The periphrases to be able to, to have to and to be going to are generally used in these cases.

Impersonal constructions

There is a specific situation in which the infinitive is used like an "impersonal future tense", replacing "will". This is done through the construction :

to be + "to" + bare infinitive

Grammatically, this is identical to the instructional "I am to wait outside" construction (above), but does not signify somebody having been issued an instruction; rather, it expresses an intended action, in the same way as "will". This "tense" is used extensively in news reports, eg. –

• The Prime Minister is to visit the West Bank (active)
• Aid is to be sent to war-torn Darfur (passive)
This "future infinitive" construction is interesting in that it only has a future aspect to it in situations where the speaker is significantly distanced from the event. In cases where the subject of the sentence is not quite as distanced from the speaker, then the same construction takes on a sense of instruction or necessity (as in "he is to wait outside", or "he is to go to hospital").

The same construction can be used in conditional clauses - If you are to go on holiday, then you need to work hard (or, conversely, if you want to...then you are to...).

The impersonality aspect comes from the fact that the emotionless verb to be is used in the place of the more usual modal verbs which would normally connect the speaker to the statement. In this way, statements are given weight (as if some external force, rather than the speaker, is governing events).

Conversely, however, the construction also provides an uncertainty aspect, since it frees the speaker from responsibility on their statement – in the phrase "John will go", for example, the speaker is almost advocating their certainty that John will, in fact, go; meanwhile, "the Prime Minister is to go" simply states the knowledge that the PM's going is in some way foreseen. (If John ends up not going, for example, the "will go" construction is negated, while the PM's "to go" construction would still hold true, since all it expresses is an expectation). In both cases, the knowledge is simply being reported (or pretends to be) from an independent source. In this sense, this impersonal to + verb construction can almost be seen as a fledgeling renarrative mood.

Verbs Followed by an Infinitive

agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, be able, beg, begin, care, choose
condescend, consent, continue, dare, decide, deserve, detest, dislike, expect, fail, forget, get, happen, have, hesitate, hope, hurry, intend, leap, leave, like, long, love, mean, neglect, offer, ought, plan, prefer, prepare, proceed, promise, propose, refuse, remember, say, shoot, start, stop, strive, swear, threaten, try, use, wait, want, wish. Read More..

Verb + Gerunds

Gerunds in English

In English, the gerund is identical in form to the present participle (ending in -ing) and can behave as a verb within a clause (so that it may be modified by an adverb or have an object), but the clause as a whole (sometimes consisting of only one word, the gerund itself) acts as a noun within the larger sentence. For example: Editing this article is easy.

In "Editing this article" (although this is traditionally known as a phrase, it is referred to as a non-finite clause in modern linguistics), the word "Editing" behaves as a verb; the phrase "this article" is the object of that verb. "Editing this article" acts as a noun phrase within the sentence as a whole, though; it is the subject of the verb "is."

Other examples of the gerund:

  • I like swimming. (direct object)
  • Swimming is fun. (subject)

Verb patterns with the gerund

Verbs that are often followed by a gerund include admit, adore, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, carry on, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, describe, detest, dislike, enjoy, escape, fancy, feel, finish, give, hear, imagine, include, justify, listen to, mention, mind, miss, notice, observe, perceive, postpone, practice, quit, recall, report, resent, resume, risk, see, sense, sleep, stop, suggest, tolerate and watch. Additionally, prepositions are often followed by a gerund.

For example:

  • I quit smoking.
  • We postponed making any decision.
  • After two years of deciding, we finally made a decision.
  • We heard whispering.
  • They denied having avoided me.
  • He talked me into coming to the party.
  • They frightened her out of voicing her opinion.

Verbs followed by a gerund or a to-infinitive

With little change in meaning

begin, continue, start; hate, like, love, prefer

With would, the verbs hate, like, love, and prefer are usually followed by the to-infinitive.

  • I would like to work there. (more usual than working)

In these examples, if the subject of the verb is not the subject of the second verb, the second verb must be a gerund (instead of an infinitive).

If one is watching sports on television, for example, one can react to the programs only as follows:

  • I enjoy boxing.
  • I am ambivalent to swimming.
  • I love golfing.

With a change in meaning

dread and hate:

These two verbs are followed by a to-infinitive when talking subjunctively (usually when using to think), but by a gerund when talking about general dislikes.

  • I dread / hate to think what she will do.
  • I dread / hate seeing him.

forget and remember:

When these have meanings that are used to talk about the future from the given time, the to-infinitive is used, but when looking back in time, the gerund.

  • She forgot to tell me her plans. (She did not tell me, although she should have.)
  • She forgot telling me her plans. (She told me, but then forgot having done so.)
  • I remembered to go to work. (I remembered that I needed to go to work, and so I did.)
  • I remembered going to work. (I remembered that I went to work.)

cannot bear:

  • I cannot bear to see you suffer like this. (You are suffering now.)
  • I cannot bear being pushed around in crowds. (I never like that.)

go on:

  • After winning the semi-finals, he went on to play in the finals. (He completed the semi-finals and later played in the finals.)
  • He went on giggling, not having noticed the teacher enter. (He continued doing so.)

mean:

  • I did not mean to scare you off. (I did not intend to scare you off.)
  • Taking a new job in the city meant leaving behind her familiar surroundings. (If she took the job, she would have to leave behind her familiar surroundings.)

advise, recommend and forbid:

These are followed by a to-infinitive when there is an object as well, but by a gerund otherwise.

  • The police advised us not to enter the building, for a murder had occurred. (Us is the object of advised.)
  • The police advised against our entering the building. (Our is used for the gerund entering.)

consider, contemplate and recommend:

These verbs are followed by a to-infinitive only in the passive or with an object pronoun.

  • People consider her to be the best.She is considered to be the best.
  • I am considering sleeping over, if you do not mind.

regret:

  • We regret to inform you that you have failed your exam. (polite or formal form of apology)
  • I very much regret saying what I said. (I wish that I had not said that.)

try:

When a to-infinitive is used, the subject is shown to make an effort at something, attempt or endeavor to do something. If a gerund is used, the subject is shown to attempt to do something in testing to see what might happen.

  • Please try to remember to post my letter.
  • I have tried being stern, but to no avail.

Gerunds preceded by a genitive

Because of its noun properties, the genitive (possessive case) is preferred for a noun or pronoun preceding a gerund.

  • We enjoyed their [genitive] singing.

This usage is preferred in formal writing or speaking. The objective case is often used in place of the possessive, especially in casual situations:

  • I do not see it making any difference.

Really, 'I do not see its making any difference' is the correct option.

This may sound awkward in general use, but is still the correct manner in which to converse or write. And this form of gerund is applicable in all relative cases, for instance:

                                 'He affected my going there.'
                                 'He affected your going there.'
                                 'He affected his/her/its going there.'
                                 'He affected our going there.'
                                 'He affected their going there.'

This is because the action, of doing or being, belongs, in effect, to the subject/object (direct or indirect) practising it, thus, the possessive is required to clearly demonstrate that.


In some cases, either the possessive or the objective case may be logical:

  • The teacher's shouting startled the student. (Shouting is a gerund, and teacher's is a possessive noun. The shouting is the subject of the sentence.)
  • The teacher shouting startled the student. (Shouting is a participle describing the teacher. This sentence means The teacher who was shouting startled the student. In this sentence, the subject is the teacher herself.)

Either of these sentences could mean that the student was startled because the teacher was shouting.

Using the objective case can be awkward if the gerund is singular but the other noun is plural. It can look like a problem with subject-verb agreement:

  • The politicians' debating was interesting.

One might decide to make was plural so that debating can be a participle.

  • The politicians debating were interesting.
 it may..  considered as a noun / pronoun..


Example Verbs Followes by a Gerund : admit, advise, appreciate, avoid, can't help,
complete, consider, delay, deny, detest, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, forbid,
get through, have, imagine, mind, miss, permit, postpone, practice, quit,recall,report,
resent, resist, resume, risk, spend (time), suggest, tolerate, waste (time).
Read More..

Sabtu, 02 Januari 2010

material for business english 1 final exam

Thursday, 31 th December 2009
Exercise

1. If you don't register before the last day of regular registration, you would
A B
pay a late fee.
C D
* Answer : A, the correct answer is didn't register.

2. Basal body of temperature refer to the lowest temperature of a healthy
A B C
individual during waiting hours.
D
* Answer : A, the correct answer is refers.

3. If your friends came to visit, will they stay in a hotel or at your house ?
A B C D
* Answer : B, the correct answer is would.

4. Our friends might stopped to see us on their way to California.
A B C D
* Answer : A, the correct answer is stop.

5. Water boil at 212'F, and freezes at 32' F.
A B C
* Answer : B, the correct answer is boils.

6. Many birds will, in the normal course of their migrations, flies more than
A B
three thousand miles to reach their winter homes.
C D
* Answer : B, the correct answer is fly.

7. The sheepdog is chased after the sheep which is heading over the hill.
A B C D
* Answer : A, the correct answer is chasing.

8. Before the report is finalized the information in their notes and our must
A B C D
be proofed.
* Answer : C, the correct answer is ours.

9. I really miss to be with my close friends in my country.
A B C D
* Answer : B, the correct answer is being.

10. We have been hoping going to Mecca for many years.
A B C D
* Answer : D, the correct answer is go.

11. Kayla ask Safira forget to give presentations of their projects yesterday.
A B C D
* Answer : A, the correct answer is forgot.

12. Gina have given contribition to the developmnet of Islam many times.
A B C D
* Answer : A, the correct answer is has.

13. Every morning fairuz begin learning to walk.
A B C D
* Answer : B, the correct answer is begins. Read More..

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