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Minggu, 08 November 2009

DETERMINERS

DETERMINERS

As indicated in the tables below, many determiners can be used either as adjectives or as pronouns. As will be pointed out in the next chapter, when a determiner is used as an adjective modifying a noun, the determiner usually precedes any other adjectives modifying the same noun.

The use of the following determiners has already been discussed in previous chapters: a, an, the, this, that, these and those. The possessive adjectives my, your, his, her, our and their can also be classified as determiners.

As indicated below, many determiners may be used only with certain types of noun. In the following tables, the abbreviation CN stands for Countable Noun and the abbreviation UN stands for Uncountable Noun. In these tables, the noun tree is used as an example of a countable noun, and the noun grass is used as an example of an uncountable noun.

Determiners used as Adjectives

Determiner Used With Example Meaning
all plural CN all trees trees in general

UN all grass grass in general




another singular CN another tree one additional or different tree




any singular CN any tree refers to one tree, without



specifying which, of a group



of more than 2 trees

plural CN any trees refers to 2 or more trees,



without specifying which

UN any grass refers to some grass,



without specifying which




both plural CN both trees refers to 2 trees of a



group of 2




each singular CN each tree refers to every tree,



considered individually,



of a group of 2 or more




either singular CN either tree refers to 1 of 2 trees,



without specifying which




enough plural CN enough trees a sufficient number of trees

UN enough grass a sufficient amount of grass




every singular CN every tree all trees, without exception,



of a group of more than 2 trees




few plural CN few trees a small number of trees




fewer plural CN fewer trees a smaller number of trees




less UN less grass a smaller amount of grass




little UN little grass a small amount of grass




many plural CN many trees a large number of trees




more plural CN more trees an additional number of trees

UN more grass an additional amount of grass




most plural CN most trees nearly all trees

UN most grass nearly all grass




much UN much grass a large amount of grass




neither singular CN neither tree no tree of a group of 2 trees




no singular CN no tree not any tree

plural CN no trees not any trees

UN no grass not any grass




one singular CN one tree a single tree




only plural CN only trees nothing except trees

UN only grass nothing except grass




other plural CN other trees different trees

UN other grass different grass




several plural CN several trees more than 2 trees, but not



a large number of trees




some singular CN some tree an unspecified tree

plural CN some trees unspecified trees

UN some grass unspecified grass




such singular CN such a tree a tree of a certain kind

plural CN such trees trees of a certain kind

UN such grass grass of a certain kind




that singular CN that tree a particular tree, which



is not nearby

UN that grass particular grass, which



is not nearby




these plural CN these trees particular trees, which



are nearby




this singular CN this tree a particular tree, which



is nearby

UN this grass particular grass, which



is nearby




those plural CN those trees particular trees, which



are not nearby




what singular CN what tree asks in general for one



tree to be specified

plural CN what trees asks in general for particular



trees to be specified

UN what grass asks in general for particular



grass to be specified




which singular CN which tree asks for one tree to be specified



from a certain group of trees

plural CN which trees asks for trees to be specified



from a certain group of trees

UN which grass asks for some of certain



grass to be specified

The following determiners can be used independently, as pronouns:

Determiners used as Pronouns

Determiner Used With Example Meaning
all plural CN all (of) the trees refers to every tree in a



group of more than 2



trees

UN all (of) the grass refers to the whole amount



of certain specified grass




another plural CN another of the trees one more of certain



specified trees




any plural CN any of the trees refers to 1 or more



unspecified trees from a



group of more than 2

UN any of the grass refers to some of certain



specified grass




both plural CN both of the trees refers to 2 trees of a



group of 2




each plural CN each of the trees refers to every tree,



considered individually,



of a group of 2 or more




either plural CN either of the trees refers to 1 of 2 trees,



without specifying which




enough singular CN enough of the tree a sufficient amount of a



specified tree

plural CN enough of the trees a sufficient number of



certain specified trees

UN enough of the grass a sufficient amount of



certain specified grass




few plural CN few of the trees a small number from a



specified group of trees




fewer plural CN fewer of the trees a smaller number from a



specified group of trees




less UN less of the grass a smaller amount of certain



specified grass




little UN little of the grass a small amount of certain



specified grass




many plural CN many of the trees a large number of certain



specified trees




more plural CN more of the trees an additional number of



certain specified trees

UN more of the grass an additional amount of



certain specified grass




most plural CN most of the trees nearly all of certain



specified trees

UN most of the grass nearly all of certain



specified grass




much UN much of the grass a large proportion of



certain specified grass




neither plural CN neither of the trees no tree of a group of 2 trees




none plural CN none of the trees no tree of certain specified



trees

UN none of the grass no grass of certain specified



grass




one plural CN one of the trees a single tree of certain



specified trees




others plural CN others of the trees different trees, from a



particular group of trees




several plural CN several of the trees more than 2, but not a large



number, of certain specified



trees




some singular CN some of the tree an unspecified portion of



a particular tree

plural CN some of the trees unspecified trees from a



particular group of trees

UN some of the grass an unspecified portion



of particular grass




such plural CN such of the trees trees of a certain kind,



from a certain specified



group of trees

UN such of the grass grass of a certain kind,



from certain specified



grass




those plural CN those of the trees particular trees, from a



certain specified group



of trees




which plural CN which of the trees asks for one or more trees



to be specified, from a



particular group of trees

Determiners used to refer to groups of two persons or things

In Old English, there were singular forms, plural forms and dual forms. Dual forms are used to refer to two persons or things. In modern English, a few words still remain which refer to two persons or things.
For example, the determiners both, either and neither are used when referring to groups of two. Both refers to two things of a group of two, either refers to one thing of a group of two, and neither refers to zero things of a group of two.
e.g.

I have two brothers. Both of them are engineers.
I had two maps of the city, but I cannot find either of them.
There are two textbooks for the course. Neither of them is expensive.

In contrast, the determiners all, any and none may be used when referring to groups with more than two members. All may refer to every member of a group of three or more, any may refer to one member of a group of three or more, and none may refer to zero members of a group of three or more.
e.g.

I have three brothers. All of them are engineers.
I had four maps of the city, but I cannot find any of them.
There are six textbooks for the course. None of them is expensive.



The following rules for the use of either and neither should be noted.

If it is desired to change a clause beginning with either so as to express a negative meaning, either must be changed to neither.
e.g.

Affirmative Meaning: Either of the alternatives is acceptable.
Negative Meaning: Neither of the alternatives is acceptable.

Affirmative Meaning: Either hotel will offer you its best room.
Negative Meaning: Neither hotel will offer you its best room.

A sentence which contains the word either, in which either does not occur at the beginning of a clause, can be changed to express a negative meaning either by using the word not, or by changing either to neither.
e.g.

Affirmative Meaning: You may borrow either of the books.
Negative Meaning: You may not borrow either of the books.
Negative Meaning: You may borrow neither of the books.

Affirmative Meaning: I might give the message to either boy.
Negative Meaning: I might not give the message to either boy.
Negative Meaning: I might give the message to neither boy.

It should be noted that in modern English, the determiner neither is most often used only at the beginning of a clause. Otherwise, the meaning of neither is usually expressed by the combination not ... either.

In addition to being used as determiners, the words both, either and neither can also be used as conjunctions.

Determiners used as singular or plural pronouns

In formal English, the pronouns another, each, either, neither and one always take singular verbs.
e.g.

Each of the children wants to win the prize.
Either of the alternatives is acceptable.
Neither of the books has good illustrations.
Every one of the students was ready on time.
In these examples, the singular verbs wants, is, has, and was are used with the pronouns each, either, neither and one.

In informal English, plural verbs are sometimes used with pronouns such as each, either and neither.
e.g.

Neither of the books have good illustrations.
However, this use of the plural verb is considered to be grammatically incorrect in formal English.

It should also be noted that in formal English, when the words another, each, every, either, neither and one are used in combination with personal pronouns or possessive adjectives, singular forms are always used. As mentioned previously, in formal English, the adjective his or the phrase his or her may be used when referring to a group containing both male and female members.
e.g.

Each of the children waited impatiently for his turn.
Every student raised his or her hand.
Neither of the girls has finished her homework.
Either of the hotels will offer you its best room.
In these examples, each, every, neither and either are used in combination with the singular forms his, his or her, her and its.

In informal English, plural possessive adjectives are often used in this type of sentence.
e.g.

Neither of the girls finished their homework.
However, this use of the plural possessive adjective is considered to be grammatically incorrect in formal English.

It should be noted that in both formal and informal English, none is used sometimes with singular, and sometimes with plural verbs.
e.g.

None of them is here. or
None of them are here.

In contrast, the pronouns both, few, many and several are always plural. They take plural verbs, and are used in combination with plural personal pronouns and possessive adjectives. In addition, the pronoun all is always plural when used with countable nouns.
e.g.

Both of the boys have completed their essays.
Several of the musicians are giving their first performances tonight.
All of the girls have finished their homework.

In these examples, the pronouns both, several and all take the plural verbs have completed, are giving and have finished, and are used in combination with the plural possessive adjective their.



The use of All, Both and Each

In addition to being used as attributive adjectives and as pronouns followed by of, the words all, both and each can also be used in apposition. A word used in apposition immediately follows the subject of a verb, or the object of a verb or preposition, and refers to the same thing as the subject or object. In the following examples, the words in apposition are printed in bold type.
e.g.

We both wondered what would happen next.
The boys all looked forward to seeing the circus.
I sent them each an invitation.

In the first two examples, both and all are used in apposition to the subjects we and the boys. In the third example, each is used in apposition to the object them.

Words used in apposition can be referred to as appositives. Like relative clauses, appositives can be defining or non-defining. Non-defining appositives must be preceded and followed by commas.
e.g.

Our leader, Tom Smith, was prepared for any emergency.
In this example Tom Smith is a non-defining appositive, in apposition to our leader.

Defining appositives such as all, both and each are not preceded and followed by commas.
e.g.

We each have our own ideas.
In this example, the defining appositive each is in apposition to we. It should be noted that although each is singular, the verb have must be plural to agree with the subject we.

When used in clauses with auxiliary verbs or with the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be, all, both and each generally follow the first auxiliary or the verb to be, rather than being used in apposition to the subject of the verb.
e.g.

The boys had all been looking forward to seeing the circus.
We are both very happy to see you.
In the first example, all follows the first auxiliary had. In the second example, both follows the Simple Present of the verb to be.

The use of No, None and Not

The words no, none and not have similar meanings, but different grammatical functions.

The determiner no can be used as an adjective, but not as a pronoun; whereas none can be used as a pronoun, but not as an adjective.
e.g.

He has no books.
None of the books are his.
In the first example, no is used as an adjective modifying the noun books. In the second example, none functions as a pronoun.

As has already been pointed out, the adverb not may be placed after the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be, or after the first auxiliary of other verbs, in order to form a negative sentence or clause.
e.g.

You are not late.
I have not forgotten what you said.



Just as neither can be said to be equivalent to the combination not ... either, none can be said to be equivalent to not ... any. For instance, the following sentence:
He will have no difficulty.
could also be written:
He will not have any difficulty.

The use of Some and Any

The determiners some and any have slightly different meanings. The use of the word some generally implies a belief in the existence of the object or objects under consideration, whereas the use of the word any may imply a doubt about the existence of the object or objects under consideration.

The words some, somebody, someone, something and somewhere are used in affirmative statements, as well as in polite questions and questions expecting an affirmative reply.
e.g.

Affirmative Statement: I saw some birds in the park.
Polite Question: Would you like some tea?
Affirmative Reply Expected: You seem worried. Is something wrong?

In contrast, the words any, anybody, anyone, anything and anywhere are used in questions and negative statements, as well as in affirmative statements referring in an indefinite way to a type of object, without specifying a particular object.
e.g.

Question: Did you see any birds in the park?
Negative Statement: I do not know anyone here.
Indefinite Reference: Any drug store can supply you with aspirin.

The words some, somebody, someone, something and somewhere usually cannot be used in a negative statement. If it is desired to change a clause beginning with the word some so that it expresses a negative meaning, some may be changed to no or none, depending on whether an adjective or pronoun is required.

In the following example, some is used as an adjective modifying the noun books. In order to change the sentence to express a negative meaning, some is replaced by the adjective no.
e.g.

Affirmative Meaning: Some books were left on the shelf.
Negative Meaning: No books were left on the shelf.

In the following example, some is used as a pronoun. In order to change the sentence to express a negative meaning, some is replaced by the pronoun none.
e.g.

Affirmative Meaning: Some of the visitors arrived late.
Negative Meaning: None of the visitors arrived late.

Similarly, if it is desired to change a clause beginning with somebody, someone, something or somewhere so that it expresses a negative meaning, these words may be replaced by nobody, no one, nothing and nowhere, respectively.
e.g.

Affirmative Meaning: Someone left a message.
Negative Meaning: No one left a message.

Affirmative Meaning: Something has happened.
Negative Meaning: Nothing has happened.

A sentence containing the word some, in which some does not occur at the beginning of a clause, can be changed to express a negative meaning by changing the sentence to a negative statement using not, and by changing some to any.
e.g.

Affirmative Meaning: I bought some potatoes.
Negative Meaning: I did not buy any potatoes.

Affirmative Meaning: We will copy some of the recipes.
Negative Meaning: We will not copy any of the recipes.

It is possible to use no or none in such sentences instead of the construction with not ... any.
e.g. I bought no potatoes.
We will copy none of the recipes.
However, in modern English, the construction with not ... any is more often used than the construction with no or none.

Similarly, a sentence containing the word somebody, someone, something or somewhere, in which the word beginning with some does not occur at the beginning of a clause, can be changed to express a negative meaning by changing the sentence to a negative statement using not, and by changing the word beginning with some to the corresponding word beginning with any.
e.g.

Affirmative Meaning: I met someone I used to know.
Negative Meaning: I did not meet anyone I used to know.

Affirmative Meaning: We will buy something.
Negative Meaning: We will not buy anything.

In such sentences, nobody, no one, nothing or nowhere may be used instead of a negative statement with not and the word anybody, anyone, anything or anywhere.
e.g.

I met no one I used to know.
We will buy nothing.
However, the construction with not is more often used.



The use of Another, Other, Others and Else

The words another, other, others and else are used to indicate one or more additional or different things.

Another is formed from a combination of the words an and other, and has a meaning similar to one other. When used as an adjective, another can precede only a singular countable noun. When used as a pronoun, another takes a singular verb.
e.g.

Please bring me another knife.
Another of her uncles lives in Montreal.
In the first example, another modifies the singular noun knife. In the second example, the pronoun another is the subject of the singular verb lives.

Other can be used with singular countable, plural countable or uncountable nouns.
e.g. The other door is open.
The other streets are paved.
Do you have any other luggage?
In these examples, other modifies the singular countable noun door, the plural countable noun streets, and the uncountable noun luggage.

Another usually cannot be immediately preceded by a determiner. In contrast, when used before a singular countable noun, other usually must be preceded by a determiner.
e.g. Please pass me the other cup.
I do not know any other way to do it.
There must be some other explanation.
In these examples, other is used with the singular countable nouns cup, way and explanation, and is preceded by the determiners the, any and some.

When other modifies a singular countable noun, the noun is sometimes omitted, particularly in the expression one ... the other.
e.g. I have two pens. One is green and the other is blue.
One of my parents is a teacher; the other is a doctor.

In these examples, the nouns following the word other are understood, rather than expressed. In the following sentences, the nouns which are understood are enclosed in square brackets.
e.g. I have two pens. One is green and the other [pen] is blue.
One of my parents is a teacher; the other [parent] is a doctor.

Others is a pronoun. Others can be used to take the place of the word other, followed by a plural countable noun.
e.g. Those trees are hemlocks; the others are pines.
Ten people belong to the group, and five others are planning to join.
In the first example, others takes the place of the words other trees. In the second example, others takes the place of the words other people.

Others is often used in the expression some ... others.
e.g. Some books are easy to read, but others are quite difficult.
Some people like classical music, while others prefer jazz.

The word else has a meaning similar to other. However, rather than being used as an adjective preceding a noun, else usually follows interrogative pronouns such as who and what, and indefinite pronouns such as anyone and someone.
e.g. Who else was at the meeting?
What else is on the agenda?
Has anyone else solved the problem?
Someone else may be able to help you.



The use of Only

In addition to being used as a determiner, the word only can be used to modify almost any part of a sentence. In general, the word only immediately precedes the part of the sentence which it modifies.

The following examples illustrate how changing the position of the word only can change the meaning of a sentence.
e.g. Only the trees were somewhat damaged by last year's storm.
Meaning: Nothing except the trees was somewhat damaged by last year's storm.

The only trees were somewhat damaged by last year's storm.
Meaning: The few trees which existed were somewhat damaged by last year's storm.

The trees were only somewhat damaged by last year's storm.
Meaning: The trees were not completely damaged by last year's storm.

The trees were somewhat damaged only by last year's storm.
Meaning: The trees were somewhat damaged by nothing except last year's storm.

The trees were somewhat damaged by last year's only storm.
Meaning: The trees were somewhat damaged by the one storm which occurred last year.

See Exercise 7.

The use of Few, Little and Several

The use of the word a with the determiners few and little somewhat changes the meaning which is expressed.

The expressions a few and a little merely refer to a small quantity of something.
e.g. A few of his friends came to the party.
Meaning: Some of his friends came to the party.

I had a little time to consider the situation.
Meaning: I had a small amount of time to consider the situation.

In contrast, few and little not only refer to a small quantity of something, but also imply that the quantity is remarkably, or undesirably small.
e.g. Few of his friends came to the party.
Meaning: Only a very small number of his friends came to the party.

I had little time to consider the situation.
Meaning: I had almost no time to consider the situation.



The expressions a few and several can both be used to refer to three or more things. However, there is a slight difference in meaning. The expression a few generally emphasizes that the quantity referred to is relatively small, while the expression several generally emphasizes that the quantity referred to is relatively large.

For instance, the following sentences could both refer to an event which occurred four or five times.
e.g. I saw him a few times.
Meaning: I saw him, but I did not see him often.

I saw him several times.
Meaning: I saw him more than once or twice.

The expressions Such ... That, So ... That, and Too

a. Such ... That
The determiner such is often used in combination with a clause beginning with that, in order to indicate a cause and effect relationship.
e.g. There was such a strong wind that we decided to stay indoors.
He has such high marks that he has applied for a scholarship.

In the first example, a strong wind refers to the cause, and we decided to stay indoors refers to the effect. In the second example, high marks refers to the cause, and he has applied for a scholarship refers to the effect.

It should be noted that when such is used as an adjective modifying a singular countable noun, the word a or an usually follows the word such.
e.g. such a strong wind
such an unusual event

The construction usually used with the expression such ... that is summarized below, followed by examples.

such a

that clause stating the
such an + adjective + noun + effect of the situation
or such

described in the main clause




She is such a hard worker that she is sure to succeed.
That is such an interesting book that I read it three times.
He has such good ideas that he may be promoted.

b. So ... That
The word so combined with a clause beginning with that can also be used in order to indicate a cause and effect relationship.

Whereas such usually modifies a noun, in this construction so is used as an intensifier modifying an adjective or adverb. Intensifiers will be discussed in a later chapter.
e.g. The wind was so strong that we decided to stay indoors.
His marks are so high that he has applied for a scholarship.
The wind blew so fiercely that we decided to stay indoors.
In the first two examples, so modifies the adjectives strong and high. In the last example, so modifies the adverb fiercely.

This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.




adverb or that clause stating the
subject + verb + so + adjective + effect of the situation




described in the main clause





She sang so well that she had to sing an encore.
The moon was so bright that we could see for miles.

In informal English, the word that in the expressions such ... that and so ... that is often omitted.
e.g. There was such a strong wind, we decided to stay indoors.
The moon was so bright, we could see for miles.

So can also be followed by many, much, few or little, followed by a noun, followed by a clause beginning with that. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.



many
that clause stating the

so + much, + noun + effect of the situation


few or
described in the main clause


little






There were so many spectators that there was standing room only.
I did so much swimming that I became very strong.
He knew so few people that he often felt lonely.
There was so little snow that we could not go skiing.

c. Too
The intensifier too used in combination with an infinitive can also be used to indicate a cause and effect relationship. In the following examples, the word too is printed in bold type, and the infinitives are underlined.
e.g. It is too windy for us to go outside.
He is too poor to continue studying without a scholarship.
It was raining too hard for us to leave the house.
In the first two examples, too modifies the adjectives windy and poor. In the last example, too modifies the adverb hard.

The construction usually used with too in combination with an infinitive is summarized below, followed by examples.




adverb or phrase containing an infinitive,
subject + verb + too + adjective + indicating the effect of the




situation described using too





They walked too quickly for me to overtake them.
The writing was too difficult to read.

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