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Minggu, 08 November 2009

TENSES

T E N S E S

Simple Present Tense

POLA:

Subject + Verb 1 + ….

They / We

I / You

Subject + Verb s-es + ….

He / She

It

FUNGSI:

a. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan (habitual action) atau kegiatan yang terjadi berulang – ulang dan terus menerus.

Contoh :

The students go to school everyday.

She studies English twice a week.

I go to church on Sundays

We celebrate our independence day once in a year.

b. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum (general truth).

Contoh:

The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west.

The earth revolves round the sun.

The pineapple never grows up on a tree.

c. Digunakan dalam bahasa drama, komentar radio dan sejenisnya.

When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing on her desk. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters.

KETERANGAN WAKTU :

  1. Every morning/day/week/month/year
  2. Once, twice, three times, four times, …
  3. Adverb of frequency : always, usually, sometimes, often, never, seldom.

Present Continuous Tense

POLA :

Subyek + to be (is, am, are) + V-ing

FUNGSI;

  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu diucapkan.

Contoh:

They are still playing at the moment.

She is reading a novel now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi belum tentu sedang berlangsung ketika pernyataan diucapkan.

Contoh:

I am learning French this year.

Mr. Brown is teaching English.

KETERANGAN WAKTU : Now, at the moment, this afternoon, this evening, right now, today.

Note : Ketika ada kata kerja seperti: Look!, Listen!, Watch!, Notice! ( Imperative), maka tensesnya Present Continuous.

Contoh: * Look! The man is climbing.

* Listen! The girls next door are singing my favourite song.

Present Perfect Tense

POLA:

Subject + Have + Verb 3 + ….

Has

FUNGSI :

a. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan waktunya tidak tertentu.

Contoh :

William Shakespeare has written many short stories.

I have swept the floor. It looks clean now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di waktu yang akan datang.

Contoh:

My friends and I have gone to Bali.

Shinta has visited her grand parents many times.

KETERANGAN WAKTU : Since, for, just (baru saja), already, yet, so far.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

POLA :

Subject + Have + Been + Verb-ing

Has

FUNGSI :

Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang mulai dilakukan pada waktu lampau dan sampai sekarang masih berlangsung.

Contoh :

My sister has been studying English for three months.

The students have been doing the test since 11 o’clock.

KETERANGAN WAKTU : For, since.

Simple Past Tense

POLA:

Subject + Verb 2 + Object + ….

FUNGSI:

Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.

Contoh :

I met my music teacher yesterday.

My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday.

Rendy closed the window five minutes ago.

The students presented their project work this morning.

KETERANGAN WAKTU :

- Last …. - …ago - This afternoon

- Just now - This morning - Yesterday

Past Continuous Tense

POLA:

Subject + was + Verb- ing

were

FUNGSI:

  1. Untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau.

Contoh :

I was studying at my friend’s house.

My parents were chatting in the living room.

  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau, dimana peristiwa lain juga terjadi .

Contoh:

When I was studying, someone knocked the door.

When I was walking to school, I met Dian sastro.

Past Perfect tense

POLA:

Subject + Had + Verb 3

FUNGSI:

Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi sebelum kegiatan lain di waktu lampau muncul.

Contoh :

The teachers went home after they had finished teaching.

When I arrived Kridosono, my favourite artist had performed.

KETERANGAN WAKTU: when, after, before.

Future Tense

POLA:

Subject + shall + Verb 1 + …

will

FUNGSI:

  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi.

Contoh :

Bobby will come here tomorrow.

I shall call my parents when I get home.

  1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa mendatang yangbukan merupakan keinginan atau kehendak.

Contoh :

Tomy will be fourteen years old next year.

We shall die one day.

KETERANGAN WAKTU : Tomorrow, next week/month/year, the day after tomorrow.

Future Perfect Tense

The future perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and use. The future perfect tense talks about the past in the future.

The structure of the future perfect tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb WILL + auxiliary verb HAVE + main verb

invariable
invariable
past participle
will have V3

Look at these example sentences in the future perfect tense:


subject auxiliary verb
auxiliary verb main verb
+ I will
have finished by 10am.
+ You will
have forgotten me by then.
- She will not have gone to school.
- We will not have left.
? Will you
have arrived?
? Will they
have received it?

In speaking with the future perfect tense, we often contract the subject and will. Sometimes, we contract the subject, will and have all together:

I will have I'll have I'll've
you will have you'll have you'll've
he will have
she will have
it will have
he'll have
she'll have
it'll have
he'll've
she'll've
it'll've
we will have we'll have we'll've
they will have they'll have they'll've

We sometimes use shall instead of will, especially for I and we.

The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. This is the past in the future. For example:

  • The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9.15am. When you arrive, the train will have left.
The train will have left when you arrive.
past present future


Train leaves in future at 9am.
9
9.15





You arrive in future at 9.15am.

Look at some more examples:

  • You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8.
  • They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time.
  • "Mary won't be at home when you arrive."
    "Really? Where will she have gone?"

You can sometimes think of the future perfect tense like the present perfect tense, but instead of your viewpoint being in the present, it is in the future:

present perfect tense
future perfect tense

|
have |
done |
> |




will |
have |
done |
> |



past now future
past now future

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