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Minggu, 08 November 2009

PAST PERFECT

Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense mirip dengan Present Perfect Tense hanya saja beda di waktunya saja. Penekannya pada PERFECT-nya itu, usainya itu. Agar lebih jelas saya ulang sedikit tentang Present Perfect Tense dulu ya.

PRESENT Perfect Tense mengenai suatu kejadian atau peristiwa yang SELESAI (sempurna, perfect) saat ini, contohnya: She has just gone (Dia baru saja pergi).

Nah PAST Perfect Tense adalah bentuk lampau (Past) dari Present Perfect Tense itu, makanya disebut Past Perfect Tense, sama-sama Perfectnya! Jelas ya? Kalau Present Perfect Tense menggunakan rumus S + Have/has + V3 maka Past Perfect Tense menggunakan bentuk lampau dari Has/has yaitu “HAD”.

Rumus Past Perfect Tense
Positif: S + had + V3
Negatif: S + had + not + V3
Tanya: Had + S + V3

Past Perfect Tense sering digunakan dengan menggunakan kalimat lain yang berbentuk lampau ( Past Tense) yang dihubungan dengan kata sambung seperti When (ketika), After (setelah) untuk menekankan bahwa Perfectnya (Sudahnya) itu adalah di masa lampau.

Contoh kejadiannya seperti ini:

“Kemarin Dia berangkat ke rumahku pagi-pagi bener, tetapi waktu ia sampai eh saya SUDAH pergi”. Tuh, lihatlah SUDAH perginya itu kan Perfect. Anda ingat pelajaran tentang Present Perfect Tense bahwa SUDAH itu adalah ciri-cirinya. Hanya saja SUDAH nya itu adalah kemarin (lampau). Itulah mengapa dalam kejadian ini kita menggunakan Past Perfect Tense.

Contoh kalimatnya:
-I had gone When He arrived at my home

“I had gone” adalah Past Perfect Tense, dengan subjectnya adalah I. Lihat ada “had” nya, dan kata kerja bentuk ketiganya (V3) adalah gone. Sesuai rumusnya S + had + V3. Kalimat pembandingnya adalah bentuk past tense: “When He arrived at my home”.

Contoh kalimat lainnya:
I had written 3 articles when you visited my blog for the first time.

Jadi Past Perfect Tense adalah tentang “Sudah, masa lalu”. Present Perfect Tense tentang “Sudah, kini”. Rumusnya mirip, karena sama-sama Perfect. Setiap Perfect pasti pakai kata kerja bentuk ke-3 baik itu pada Kata Kerja utamanya atau pada kata kerja bantu-nya.

Contoh kalimat lain dalam Past Perfect Tense:
-I had studied hard but I didn’t make good result in the exam.
-You had told me twice before I understood.

Past Perfect Tense Dalam Kalimat Negatif

tinggal tambah NO setelah HAD. Contoh berikut telah disederhanakan:
- I had not studied hard, so I didn’t make good result
-You had not told me that, that’s why I didn’t understand

Past Perfect Tense Dalam Kalimat Tanya

Tinggal dibalik, Had nya di depan.
Rumusnya kan: Had + S + V3

-Had You studied hard bla bla bla?
-Had You told me …?

Past Perfect Structure :

Positive

Subject + had + past participle

I, You, He, She, We, They had finished before I arrived.

Negative

Subject + had + not (hadn't) + past participle

I, You, He, She, We, They hadn't eaten before he finished the job.

Questions

Question word + had + subject + past participle

What -> had he, she, you, we, they thought before I asked the question?

PAST PERFECT

Past perfect, form
The Past Perfect tense in English is composed of two parts: the past tense of the verb to have (had) + the past participle of the main verb.

Subject had past participle
We had decided...
Affirmative

She had given.
Negative

We hadn't asked.
Interrogative

Had they arrived?
Interrogative negative
Hadn't you finished?

Example: to decide, Past perfect

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I had decided I hadn't decided Had I decided?
You had decided You hadn't decided Had you decided?
He, she, it had decided He hadn't decided Had she decided?
We had decided We hadn't decided Had we decided?
You had decided You hadn't decided Had you decided?
They had decided They hadn't decided Had they decided?

Past perfect, function
The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does not matter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which one happened first.

In these examples, Event A is the first or earliest event, Event B is the second or latest event:

a. John had gone out when I arrived in the office.
Event A Event B
b. I had saved my document before the computer crashed.
Event A Event B
c. When they arrived we had already started cooking
Event B Event A
d. He was very tired because he hadn't slept well.
Event B Event A

Past perfect + just
'Just'
is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before now, e.g.

a. The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
b. She had just left the room when the police arrived.
c. I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.

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